On December 6, 2020 Kazakhstan re-activated its attack on internet connections to certain websites (,,,,, etc.) and started decrypting connections to them. See Kazakhstan’s HTTPS Interception Live (Again).

On July 2019 the government of Kazakhstan started enforcing a policy where web browser users are forced to install a specific root certificate on their computers. Due to the nature of browser based encryption (SLL/TLS/https) this enables the government to decrypt the traffic. See the government of Kazakhstan forcefully decrypts part of internet traffic.

EFAIL attack on OpenPGP and S/MIME

On May 13, 2018 researchers published findings concerning attack on OpenPGP and S/MIME, see : "EFAIL describes vulnerabilities in the end-to-end encryption technologies OpenPGP and S/MIME that leak the plaintext of encrypted emails." and "While it is necessary to change the OpenPGP and S/MIME standards to fix these vulnerabilities, some clients had even more severe implementation flaws allowing straightforward exfiltration of the plaintext.".